"We do not accept a role for the United Nations or global forces to monitor the agreement", he told reporters in Damascus.
Russia, Turkey and Iran struck a deal last week to set up four safe zones where the opposition and government forces will halt hostilities.
"We confirm that a draft resolution has been introduced", United Nations mission spokesman Fyodor Strzhizhovsky said, but gave no further details.
Syria's ally Russian Federation and regional power Iran have helped President Bashar al-Assad gain the military advantage against rebels fighting for six years to unseat him, and Moscow has led most of the recent diplomatic efforts to end the conflict. The deal took effect at midnight on Friday.
The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said hundreds are expected to leave Barzeh, with around 1,500 expected to leave on Monday and more in the coming weeks.
Muallem stressed that militant groups involved in the de-escalation plan must help clear areas they control of Takfiri terror groups, including Jabhat Fateh al-Sham that was formerly known as al-Nusra Front, and Russia, Turkey and Iran, as the deal's guarantors, must help them do this. Al-Moallem says "it is the duty" of these armed groups to force the militants from their areas so that they can become safe.More news: Tillerson Meets ASEAN Ministers to Seek Support on North Korea
Syria's state TV and an opposition monitoring group say hundreds of rebels and their families have begun boarding buses to leave a besieged rebel-held neighborhood of the capital, Damascus, under an agreement between the warring sides.
Rebels participating in the Astana talks were signatories to a ceasefire agreement reached in December, which excluded the jihadists.
Al-Moallem said the government's alternative to stalled negotiations has been the implementation of "reconciliation agreements" around the country.
Al Moallem stressed, though, that 'there will be no presence of worldwide forces under the auspices of the United Nations and explained that only the Russian military police will be deployed at certain checkpoints'.
Such deals have been criticized by the opposition as being imposed on civilians through siege tactics.
A spokesman for the United Nations special envoy to Syria, Staffan de Mistura, declined to comment on those remarks.More news: North Korea accuses US, South Korea of assassination attempt
Moualem also addressed what he described as an apparent change of attitude towards Syria by the USA administration.
Moualem also said the United States seemed to have concluded that it must reach an understanding with Russian Federation for a solution to the Syrian crisis.
Speaking to reporters traveling with him to Copenhagen, he suggested that it's still not yet clear what impact the plan could have on the US -led fight against Islamic State group militants.
Muallem also said that Damascus considered the deployment of Jordanian forces in southern Syria an act of aggression, but added that Syria was not about to confront Jordan.
Speaking about the military situation inside Syria, Moualem said Deir al-Zor, a city and province occupied by Islamic State in the east, was the "fundamental objective" for government forces and was more important to the average Syrian than Idlib, a northwestern province that is an opposition stronghold.More news: Le Pen speech plagiarism 'a wink to former candidate Fillon'